The Tate Modern show was the first in its history to attract more than half a million people.
Matisse: The Cut-Outs drew attention to the final part of the French artist’s career from 1937-54.
Nicholas Serota, director of the Tate, said he was “delighted” that the show had “captured imaginations”.
He added that the bold, large-scale, colourful display of Matisse’s later work had attracted “visitors of all ages”.
The exhibition opened on 17 April and came to a close on 7 September.
Previous record attendances for Tate attractions were for the Matisse Picasso show in 2002, which drew 467,166 people, followed by Damien Hirst’s 2012 exhibition which brought more than 463,000 visitors through its doors.
A live tour of the Matisse exhibition was also broadcast in some 200 cinemas around the UK and initially pulled in 15,000 people. A film of Matisse Live is due to be released in screening rooms around the world shortly.
Matisse’s The Snail will be exhibited at Tate Liverpool, marking the first time it has been shown in the UK outside London.